پیوست اینترنتی کتاب ادبیات من

از آن‌جا که فهرست منابع کتاب ادبیات من بسیار طولانی و مفصل است، برای صرفه‌جویی در کاغذ، این فهرست را به صورت مَجازی در وب‌سایت نشر اطراف قرار داده‌ایم. همچنین، نویسندگان در بخش‌هایی از کتاب به تعدادی از آثار اجرایی یا تصویری اشاره کرده‌اند که دیدنِ عکسی از آن‌ها به فهم بهتر متن کمک می‌کند. همچنین در این پیوست پیشنهادهایی برای پروژه‌های کلاسی ارائه داده شده است.

پروژه‌های گروهی و کلاسی

در این پیوست پیشنهادهایی برای پروژه‌های کلاسی ارائه می‌دهیم که البته ترتیب خاصی ندارند. در کتاب آموزش متن‌های خودزندگی‌نگاری (Teaching Life Writing Texts) اثر میریام فیوکس و کریگ هاوز هم پیشنهادهای بسیار خوب فراوانی درباره‌ی آموزش ژانرها، موضوع‌ها و متن‌های خاص ارائه شده است. پروژه‌های پیشنهادی ما عبارت‌اند از:

  • در قالب تحقیقی جامع، وب‌سایت‌های مربوط به هویت را شناسایی و فهرستی از ویژگی‌های هر وب‌سایت تهیه کنید. به نسبت متن‌های تصویری و مکتوب، دامنه‌ی ارتباط‌های هایپرتکستی در هر کدام از وب‌سایت‌ها و همچنین تفاوت‌هایشان با هم توجه کنید.
  • وب‌سایتی از روایت‌های زندگی درباره‌ی موضوع مورد علاقه‌تان بسازید، مثلاً ورزشی خاص، نوعی خودیاری یا مجموعه‌ای از قصه‌های قومی یا ملی.
  • به مدت یک هفته یکی از وب‌سایت‌های ساخت و انتشارِ فیلم‌‌های ویدئویی «زمان حقیقی» (real-time) را دنبال کنید و از کنش‌های خودزندگی‌نامه‌ای اجراشده در فیلم‌ها گزارش تهیه کنید. به نظر شما تفاوت آنچه در این نوع سایت‌ها ارائه می‌شود با زندگی عادی و روزمره‌ی افراد چیست؟
  • بعضی از خاطرات روزانه‌ی تصویری یوتیوب را تماشا کنید. سبک‌های ارائه‌ی «خود» در این نوع خاطرات را توصیف کنید. هماهنگی یا تضاد روایت گفته‌شده با ویدئو (یا تصاویر) چگونه و به چه میزان است؟ آیا گوینده‌ی روایت به جای فرد دیگری حرف می‌زند یا مشغول گفتن زندگی «واقعی و معتبر» خودش است؟ چه کسی با عوامل تولید سروکار دارد؟ توجه به این جزئیات چه مسائلی را درباره‌ی پیچیدگی ارائه‌ی خود در فیلم ویدئویی خودزندگی‌نامه‌ای برای شما مطرح می‌کند؟
  • یکی از پروژه‌هایی را که در آن‌ها افراد عکس، یادگاری، بریده‌روزنامه‌ها، چیزهای تزئینی و امثال این‌ها را در دفترچه‌هایی خالی می‌چسبانند، بررسی کنید. در این پروژه‌ چه قصه‌هایی درباره‌ی فرد یا خانواده‌اش گفته شده‌اند؟ چه نوع رخدادهایی در قصه‌ها حذف یا پررنگ شده‌‌اند؟ آیا پروژه‌ی مزبور روایتی منسجم دارد یا روایت‌هایی متعارض را ارائه می‌دهد؟ کنارهم چیدن چیزهای مختلف مثل عکس، اشیای مادی و متن چه تأثیری دارد؟
  • وبلاگی با موضوع خاص را انتخاب کنید، مثلاً وبلاگی درباره‌ی افسردگی، پرخوری/کم‌خوری عصبی، خودکشی یا بدن‌سازی. این وبلاگ تک‌نفره است یا مطالبش را بیش از یک نفر تهیه می‌کنند؟ قصه‌گویی تعاملی یا مشارکتیِ‌ مشاهده‌شده در وبلاگ مزبور از چه نوعی است؟ آیا قصه‌هایی خاص بارها و بارها تکرار می‌شوند؟ چگونه نظرات مخاطبانْ مطلب اصلی موجود در وبلاگ را بازنویسی می‌کنند یا موجب تغییرشکل آن می‌شوند؟ اگر به نظر می‌رسد مدخل‌های وبلاگ قالبی خاص دارند، خصوصیت‌های آن قالب را توصیف کنید. آیا حس می‌کنید بعضی نویسندگان در مدخل‌هایشان تظاهر می‌کنند؟ علاوه بر متن مکتوب از چه رسانه‌های دیگری در سایت استفاده شده‌ است؟
  • یک هفته کارت‌پستال‌های سایت پُست‌سیکرت (PostSecret) را بخوانید. این مطالب چه چیزی درباره‌ی اعتراف، انواع رازهای افشاشده و روش‌های به تصویرکشیدن این افشاگری‌ها به شما می‌گویند؟ جایگاه شما به عنوان تماشاچی یا کسی که گوش ایستاده چگونه در سایت تعیین شده‌ و این جایگاه شما را با چه مسائلی درباره‌ی صمیمیت عمومی[۱] آشنا می‌کند؟
  • یکی از رخدادهای زندگی‌تان را به قالب کتابی مصور در آورید. سپس مقاله‌ای بنویسید و در آن، مسائل مربوط به طراحی این اثر، مثل قاب‌ها، حباب‌های دیالوگ، صدای روی متن راوی، اندازه‌ی حاشیه‌ی بین قاب‌ها و سبک تصویری را توضیح دهید.
  • اگر تاکنون عضو شبکه‌هایی مجازی‌ مثل سِکِندلایف (Second Life) بوده‌اید، آوتاری را که برای خودتان طراحی کرده بودید، فضایی که خریده بودید، نقش‌هایی که ایفا کرده بودید و مواجهه‌هایتان با دیگران را توصیف کنید. چه چیزهایی درباره‌ی آواتار بقیه نظرتان را جلب کرده بود؟
  • کتابی پیدا کنید که شهادت‌نامه‌هایی متعدد درباره‌ی یک تجربه‌ی زندگی خاص را در قالب گروه‌نگاری (prosopography) گرد آورده باشد. مثل کتاب‌های اِستادز تِرکل (Working) یا ویکتوریا موریس (Hard Times Cotton Mill Girls) یا مجموعه‌هایی از روایت‌های آزارهای جنسی، بیماری ایدز، مصاحبه‌های شفاهی یا شهادت‌نامه‌هایی درباره‌ی زایمان. برای نوشتن درباره‌ی تجربه‌ای خاص از کدام استراتژی‌های روایی‌ استفاده شده است؟ کدام الگوهای جمعی‌ در این روایت‌ها مشاهده می‌شوند؟ افراد روایتگر در چه جایگاه مشترکی قرار دارند که از آن‌ها یک جمع می‌سازد؟ مجموعه‌ی مزبور چه کار فرهنگی‌ای انجام می‌دهد؟ آیا شواهدی در روایت‌ها وجود دارد که تمایل راویان/گوینده‌ها را به استفاده‌ا‌ی خاص از روایت‌شان نشان دهد؟ آیا می‌توانید اطلاعاتی درباره‌ی نحوه‌ی استفاده‌ی روایت‌های آنان در گذشته پیدا کنید؟ مصاحبه‌گر یا گرد‌آورنده‌ی روایت‌های شفاهی چه نقشی دارد و اهمیت نقش او را تا چه حد می‌دانید؟
  • با یک نفر دیگر یا همراه گروهی کوچک به مکانی خاص (مثل مکان‌های دورهمیِ افراد در حال بهبودی یا سالمندان یا محل انجام پروژه‌های شجره‌نامه‌ای) بروید و ببینید مردم چگونه درباره‌ی خودشان قصه می‌گویند. ترغیب‌کنندگان چه کسانی‌اند و مردم را به گفتن چه نوع قصه‌هایی دعوت می‌کنند؟ افراد چه روش‌های ویژه‌ای برای روایت قصه‌هایشان دارند؟ چه مراسم گروهی‌ای قبل و بعد و حین جلسات برای قصه‌گویی اجرا می‌شود؟ با استفاده از مطالبی که از یکی از مکان‌های مزبور گردآوری کرده‌اید، انواع روابط ترغیب‌کننده-قصه‌گو و اهداف بلندمدت‌شان را بررسی کنید.
  • در دوره‌ی زمانی مشخصی، میزگردی رادیویی یا تلویزیونی را دنبال کنید و نکات لازم برای بررسی برنامه را یادداشت کنید. دقت کنید که قاب برنامه‌ی مورد نظرتان چگونه گفتن قصه‌های شخصی را سازماندهی می‌کند. درباره‌ی انواع قصه‌های مطرح‌شده و مورد استقبال تحقیق کنید.
  • چند نوع مختلف از فرم‌هایی که با اطلاعات خودزندگی‌نامه‌ای فرد پُر می‌شوند، تهیه کنید و روایت‌های زندگیِ درخواستی این فرم‌ها را بررسی کنید. مثلاً فرم‌های سابقه‌ی درمانی، فرم‌های متقاضیان خدمات اجتماعی، فرم‌های پذیرش دانشگاه‌های تحصیلات تکمیلی، فرم‌های راهنمای نوشتن رزومه و فرم‌های تقاضای همکاری.
  • خودزندگی‌نگاره‌هایی را که نامزدهای سیاسی منتشر کرده‌اند، در سخنرانی‌هایشان گنجانده‌اند یا در وب‌سایت‌هایشان گذاشته‌اند گردآوری و بررسی کنید. مقاله‌ای پژوهشی بنویسید یا ویدئویی بسازید که شیوه‌ی استفاده‌ی نامزدهای سیاسی از روایت‌های خودزندگی‌نامه‌ای را نشان دهد. نامزدهایی که در پی گرفتن مقام و منصبی هستند، چه استفاده‌هایی از قصه‌های زندگی‌شان می‌کنند؟
  • روایتی شخصی درباره‌ی یکی از اندام‌های بدن‌تان، هم از نگاهی بیرونی و هم با توجه به حس درونیِ خودتان به آن اندام، بنویسید. خودتان را همان اندام تصور کنید و روایت را از زبان و با صدای آن اندام بگویید.
  • روایت زندگی یک شخصیت ورزشی مرد و یک شخصیت ورزشی زن را بخوانید. انواع قصه‌هایشان درباره‌ی موضوع‌های زیر را با هم مقایسه کنید: تجربه‌های بزرگ شدن هر یک، الگوهای زندگی‌شان، روش‌های آموزش و تمرین ورزشی آن‌ها، دیدگاه‌شان درباره‌ی برخورد فیزیکی و کشمکش‌ عاطفی، ارتباط با اعضای دیگر تیم، اهداف بلندمدت و حس‌شان درباره‌ی بدن‌ خودشان. توجه کنید که تفاوت‌های منسوب به جنسیت تا چه میزان با تفاوت‌های قومی، نژادی، جنسی یا فضای فرهنگی آن‌ها تلاقی می‌کنند.
  • یک گروه موسیقی را در شبکه‌ای مثل ام‌تی‌وی یا شبکه‌ی سرگرمی سیاه‌پوستان (Black Entertainment Network) دنبال کنید. بررسی کنید که اجرا و ترانه‌های گروه‌های موسیقی چگونه بر نوع نمایش‌ و تجسم یک روایت «زندگی» خاص تأثیر می‌گذارد و تغییرش می‌دهد.
  • مجموعه‌ای از نوشته‌های مربوط به جنگ گردآوری کنید. شبیه کاری که جون الِکساندر از دانشجویان دوره‌ی کارشناسی خواست و در کتابی با عنوان خاطره‌پردازی‌های اسرای جنگی آمریکا از جنگ‌های استقلال تا جنگ ویتنام (American POW Memoirs from the Revolutionary War through Vietnam War) منتشر کرد. این دست پروژه‌ها دانشجویان را به شکلی ثمربخش درگیر پژوهش درباره‌ی خاطره‌پردازی می‌کند.
  • گروه گفت‌وگویی تشکیل دهید و مجموعه‌سؤال‌هایی طراحی کنید تا در مصاحبه‌های شفاهی درباره‌ی جنبه‌ا‌ی خاص از تجربه‌ی زندگی پرسیده شوند. موضوع مصاحبه‌ها می‌توانند مسائلی شبیه این‌ها باشند: آمریکایی شدن، دختری جوان بودن در دهه‌ای غیر از زمان حال، فواید و کشمکش‌های داشتن هویت شغلی، تقابل هویت خانوادگی با هویت محلی و هویت ملی، تجربه‌ی یک بیمار، رویکرد افراد با بدن‌شان. با یکی‌دو نفر درباره‌ی موضوع مورد نظرتان مصاحبه کنید، متن مصاحبه را مکتوب کنید و به متن‌تان نقدی اضافه کنید که فرایند مصاحبه را بررسی کند. نوشته‌تان را به شکل مقاله دربیاورید. درباره‌ی مسائل مربوط به این‌که کسی روایت زندگی فردی دیگر را از او بپرسد و سپس آن را بنویسد و ویرایش کند، تأمل کنید.
  • روایتی از کودکی‌تان بنویسید و سپس درباره‌ی مفهوم و تعریف کودکی، شیوه‌ی فرزندپروری و سایر مسائل مربوط به کودکان در زمان بچگی خودتان تحقیق کنید. روایت خودزندگی‌نامه‌ای‌تان را با هدف ژرف‌اندیشی و/یا ارزیابی نقادانه‌ درباره‌ی مقطع تاریخی مکان و زمانش بازنویسی کنید.
  • سراغ یکی از آلبوم‌های خانوادگی‌تان بروید و شش تا هشت عکس انتخاب کنید که به نظرتان ویژگی‌های خانواده‌ی شما را نشان می‌دهند. روایتی را که به نظر می‌رسد این عکس‌ها می‌گویند بنویسید. روایت‌تان را با قصه‌ی رخدادهای خاصِ ثبت‌شده در عکس‌ها مقایسه کنید. شاید بخواهید با یک یا چند عضو خانواده‌تان درباره‌ی خاطره‌شان از همان رخدادها مصاحبه کنید ولی حتماً قصه‌ی خودتان را پیش از مصاحبه با دیگران بنویسید.
  • به یک مرکز خرید بروید و چند ساعتی رفت‌وآمد مردم را تماشا کنید. به چیزهایی دقت کنید که به نظرتان «نشانگرهای هویتی» افراد برای منتقل کردن قصه‌ای درباره‌ی خودشان هستند. نشانگرهای هویتی می‌توانند چیزهایی مثل این‌ها باشند: لباس‌ها، اشیا، مدل مو، جواهرات، خالکوبی‌ها و زبان بدن. همچنین به نشانگرهای هویتی گروه‌ها توجه کنید و ببینید چه مشابهت یا مغایرتی با نشانگرهای هویتی فردی دارند.
  • به یک مرکز خرید بروید و به قصه‌هایی که مردم هنگام رد شدن از کنارتان برای هم تعریف می‌کنند گوش بدهید. چه نوع قصه‌هایی به گوش‌تان می‌خورد و خودتان چطور می‌توانید یکی‌‌دو‌تا از این قصه‌ها را کامل کنید؟ بر اساس همین تکه‌هایی که از قصه‌های دیگران شنیده‌اید، روایتی بنویسید و درباره‌ی هویت‌ گوینده‌ی هر قصه بیشتر صحبت کنید یا هویت مفروضش را به تصویر بکشید.
  • با استفاده از بخش آگهی‌های شخصی در روزنامه‌ی محلی آلترناتیو چند آگهی شخصی برای عرضه‌ی «خود»[۲] را انتخاب و با هم مقایسه‌شان کنید. نشانگر‌های خودزندگی‌نامه‌ای هر آگهی را به عنوان جنبه‌هایی از شخصیت ایده‌آلی که آگهی‌دهنده مایل به ساخت آن است، پیدا کنید. هر نشانگر چقدر در ساخت تصویری منسجم از کسی که احتمالاً با فرد دیگری قرار ملاقات خواهد گذاشت، موفق است؟
  • سه نوع آگهی درباره‌ی خودتان بنویسید: آگهی شخصی، آگهی تقاضای کار بعد از فارغ‌التحصیلی و آگهی درگذشت. چگونگی ارائه‌ی خود در این سه نوع آگهی را با هم مقایسه کنید و بگویید مخاطبان مورد نظر هر آگهی چگونه بر آنچه در نوشته‌تان آورده‌ یا از آن حذف کرده‌اید، تأثیر گذاشته‌اند.
  • پیشینه‌ی جمعی کاری یا تحصیلیِ خانواده‌ی خود یا روایتی درباره‌ی تبار خانوادگی خود تا سه نسل را روی کاغذ بیاورید. این نوع پیشینه‌های جمعی به چه روایت‌هایی درباره‌ی عوامل و رخدادهای اجتماعی-فرهنگی کلان‌تر اشاره می‌کنند؟
  • گروهی تشکیل دهید و هر چه درباره‌ی دلایل نوشتن روایت زندگی به ذهن‌تان می‌رسد، بگویید. چه مناسبت‌ها، جابه‌جایی‌ها، نقل‌مکان‌ها، تغییرات، فقدان‌ها، یافته‌ها، استدلال‌ها یا شرایطی ممکن است کسی را ترغیب به نوشتن قصه‌ی زندگی‌اش کند؟
  • فهرستی از روایت‌های زندگی‌ای که خوانده‌اید تهیه کنید. کدام افراد سرشناس را با کمک نوشته‌های خودزندگی‌نامه‌ای‌شان شناخته‌اید؟ فهرستی از کسانی که دوست دارید قصه‌ی زندگی‌شان را بخوانید تهیه کنید. خودزندگی‌نگاری با چه روش‌هایی شما را با افرادی که هرگز ندیده‌اید، آشنا می‌کند؟
  • شخصیتی واقعی انتخاب کنید که هم خودش و هم یک یا چند زندگی‌نامه‌نویس قصه‌ی ‌زندگی‌اش را نوشته باشند. روایت‌های زندگی و زندگی‌نامه‌ها را در کنار هم بخوانید و تفاوت موضوع‌های بازنمایی‌شده در هر یک از این دو سبک زندگی‌نگاری را بررسی کنید.
  • در خانواده‌ی شما قصه‌گویی هست که بقیه برای گفتن قصه‌های خانواده و محافظت از آن‌ها به او اعتماد کنند؟ قصه‌های این فرد چه ویژگی‌هایی دارند؟ اعضای خانواده به این قصه‌گو و قصه‌هایی که می‌گوید چه واکنشی نشان می‌دهند؟
  • چه قصه‌های به‌یادماندنی‌ای در خانواده‌ی شما حفظ می‌شوند؟ در گروه‌تان چطور؟ در منطقه و میان ملت‌تان؟ در خانواده، گروه، منطقه یا ملت‌ از چه کسانی انتظار می‌رود قصه‌هایشان را بگویند؟
  • اگر تا کنون خودنگاره‌ای (self-portrait) در قالب عکس یا نقاشی‌ دیده‌اید، دقت کنید چه چیزهایی این خودنگاره‌ی تصویری را از نقاشی یا عکسی که نقاش یا عکاسی دیگر از سوژه کشیده، متمایز می‌کنند.
  • روایتی کوتاه درباره‌ی غذا بنویسید یا دفتر خاطراتی مخصوص غذا تهیه کنید و در آن، مطالبی درباره‌ی غذا، فرهنگ و بدن جنسیتی‌شده یادداشت کنید. می‌توانید درباره‌ی اختلالات‌ خوردن و سیاست‌‌های چاقی، اصلاح ژنتیکی مواد غذایی و تأثیر آن بر کودکان،‌ قحطی و کمبود مواد غذایی در کشورهای درحال‌توسعه و دسته‌بندی‌های جنسیتیِ پرخوری در خانه یا با نگاهی تخصصی و حرفه‌ای بنویسید.
  • ابتدای سه چهار روایت زندگی را با هم مقایسه کنید. راوی‌ها چگونه و از چه زمانی قصه‌هایشان را شروع کرده‌اند؟ روایت‌شان را از ابتدا،‌ میانه یا اواخر زندگی‌شان شروع کرده‌اند؟ اگر خودتان بخواهید خودزندگی‌نامه‌تان را با جمله‌ای غیر از «من در … به دنیا آمدم» شروع کنید، نقطه‌ی شروع‌ محتمل‌ قصه‌تان کجا است؟ (دو سه مورد را نام ببرید.)
  • یک پاراگراف خودزندگی‌نامه‌ای از زبان سوم‌شخص درباره‌ی خودتان بنویسید. بعد از چند ساعت همان را از زبان اول‌شخص بازنویسی کنید. به تغییراتی که در نسخه‌ی دوم ایجاد کرده‌اید توجه کنید.
  • پاراگراف خودزندگی‌نامه‌ای‌تان را برای سه مخاطب مختلف بازنویسی کنید. یک بار برای مخاطب آگهی‌ شخصی، یک بار برای خوانندگان مقاله‌ای که با هدف گرفتن پذیرش از دانشگاه نوشته می‌شود و یک بار برای مخاطبان یک سخنرانی انتخاباتی.
  • فکر کنید که ده سال دیگر چه نوع قصه‌ای درباره‌ی خودتان تعریف خواهید کرد. یادداشت‌هایی برای چنان قصه‌ای تهیه کنید. پس از مدتی سراغ یادداشت‌هایتان بروید و ببینید چه تفاوتی با نگاه جدیدتان به خودتان دارند.
  • چه کتاب‌ها یا چه نوع کتاب‌هایی که پیش‌تر خوانده‌اید ممکن است الگوی شما برای گفتن قصه‌ی زندگی‌تان شوند یا روشی برای روایت زندگی خود در اختیارتان بگذارند؟ چند نمونه از این متن‌ها را نام ببرید یا توصیف کنید.
  • هنگام خواندن یا شنیدن روایت زندگی شخصی دیگر چه چیزی بیش از هر چیز توجه‌تان را جلب می‌کند؟ چه نوع سؤال‌هایی درباره‌ی قصه و گوینده می‌پرسید؟
  • سه چهار نسخه‌ی مختلف از یک روایت زندگی را که در مقاطع تاریخی گوناگون منتشر شده‌اند، تهیه کنید. قصه‌ی زندگی فرانکلین، رونالدسون، جمیسون، داگلاس و تواین نمونه‌هایی از این نوع روایت‌های خودزندگی‌نامه‌ای هستند. بررسی کنید که در نوبتِ انتشار، قصه در چه قابی برای مخاطب تعریف شده است. تفاوت‌های فیزیکی و ظاهری مشهود در هر نوبت از عرضه‌ی روایت کدام‌اند؟ این تفاوت‌ها چه دلایل محتملی دارند؟

[۱] . صمیمیت عمومی یا public intimacy به معنای نزدیکی و صمیمیت افراد جامعه از راه تلاش برای تعیین جای مسائل شخصی در حوزه‌ی عمومی است. در این فرایند به جای اهمیت دادن به بسترهای مسائل شخصی یا فرهنگی افراد و گروه‌های مختلف، بر فضاهای گفتمانی مشترک در بده‌بستان‌های عمومی تأکید می‌شود.

 

تصاویر و عکس‌های کتاب:

این عکس‌ها در کتاب اصلی چاپ نشده‌اند اما دیدن آن‌ها در کنار خواندن متن کتاب به بهتر فهمیدن کتاب کمک می کند.

Tracey Emin C.V. 1995 Tracey Emin born 1963 Presented by Stuart and Margaret Evans 2000 http://www.tate.org.uk/art/work/T07632

LONDON, ENGLAND – JUNE 27: Tracy Emin’s 1998 piece ‘My Bed’ on display at Christie’s on June 27, 2014 in London, England. This iconic work from the YBA moment is being offered at auction for the first time and is estimated to sell for between 800,000 – 1.2 million GBP. (Photo by Rob Stothard/Getty Images)

Ligon, Condition Report, L02822

کتاب شناسی کتاب ادبیات من


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